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La vidéo d’un homicide apparenté à une exécution, organisé par un groupe armé dans un stade de football de l’est de la Libye, met en évidence l’incapacité des autorités à empêcher certaines parties du pays de sombrer dans la violence et le non-droit, a déclaré Amnistie internationale vendredi 22 août.

Une vidéo amateur mise en ligne sur des sites de médias sociaux montre la prétendue exécution d’un Égyptien, apparemment organisée à Derna, une ville de l’est du pays, par un groupe armé qui se fait appeler le Conseil de lachoura de la jeunesse islamique.

« Cette exécution illégale concrétise les plus grandes peurs des Libyens ordinaires qui, dans certaines parties du pays, se retrouvent pris entre des groupes armés impitoyables et un État défaillant », a déclaré Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui, directrice adjointe du programme Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord d’Amnistie internationale.

« De tels actes ne peuvent que mener à de nouvelles violations des droits humains à Derna, où les habitants ne disposent d’aucun recours auprès des institutions de l’État et n’ont donc aucun moyen d’obtenir justice ou une protection efficace contre les atteintes à leurs libertés fondamentales.

« Les autorités libyennes, avec le soutien de la communauté internationale, doivent de toute urgence prendre des mesures contre l’effondrement de l’ordre public qui touche Derna et d’autres villes depuis la chute de Mouammar Kadhafi. »

Sur la vidéo publiée en ligne, la victime égyptienne, Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed, est amenée les yeux bandés sur le terrain de football dans un pick-up. Des hommes masqués et armés de fusils la forcent à s’agenouiller sur une civière.

Une déclaration lue à voix haute avant sa mise à mort indique que cet homme est accusé d’avoir poignardé à mort un Libyen, Khalid al Dirsi. Selon la déclaration, lors de son interrogatoire par le Comité légitime pour la résolution des différends, un organe apparemment placé sous l’autorité du Conseil de la choura de la jeunesse islamique, Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed aurait reconnu s’être rendu coupable de meurtre et de vol.

Toujours selon la déclaration, le Comité a jugé que cet homme devait être « exécuté » à moins d’être pardonné par la famille de sa victime. Sur la vidéo, la famille refuse visiblement de lui accorder le pardon.

Une arme de poing est alors remise à un homme en civil au visage découvert, que l’on pense être le frère de Khalid al Dirsi. On peut le voir abattre Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed par-derrière, sans doute d’une balle dans la tête ou dans la nuque.

Amnistie internationale a également étudié des photos de la scène postées sur des sites de médias sociaux, sur lesquelles on peut voir une foule conséquente assister à cet homicide depuis les gradins du stade.

Des sources à Derna ont informé Amnistie internationale que ces faits avaient eu lieu le 19 août aux abords de la ville.

« Il s’agit d’un acte illégal et odieux de vengeance, pas de justice », a déclaré Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui.

« Les autorités libyennes doivent faire tout ce qui est en leur pouvoir pour rétablir les institutions d’État et l’état de droit à Derna et ailleurs dans le pays. »

L’État n’a pas su imposer son autorité sur Derna depuis que le conflit qu’a connu la Libya en 2011 a pris fin.

Il n’y a aucune présence policière ou militaire depuis lors et la Cour d’appel de Derna a été suspendue en juin 2013, à la suite de l’assassinat d’un haut magistrat survenu alors que des juges recevaient des messages de menace récurrents de la part de groupes armés.

Des membres de l’appareil judiciaire ont refusé de se présenter à leur poste à moins que l’État leur fournisse la protection et les systèmes de sécurité nécessaires, ce qu’il ne fait pas.

Ce vide sécuritaire a été exploité par divers groupes armés, notamment Ansar al Sharia, qui exerce un contrôle de fait sur la ville.

Au cours des deux dernières années, des agents de services de sécurité, des personnalités politiques et religieuses et des juges ont été victimes d’homicides ciblés à Derna. Ces crimes n’ont pour l’instant pas fait l’objet d’une enquête approfondie.

Un certain nombre de groupes armés islamistes agissant dans la ville semblent avoir profité de l’effondrement de l’état de droit pour en prendre le contrôle, apparemment dans le but de faire appliquer leur propre interprétation de la charia, la loi islamique.

Les homicides s’apparentant à des exécutions, comme celui que l’on peut voir dans cette vidéo, vont à l’encontre du principe fondamental d’humanité inscrit dans le droit international humanitaire.

 


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